What is a solar water heating system and how it works?

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As soon as the winters start approaching, geysers come out as one of the most demanded home appliances of all time. However, the electricity bills that accompany the geysers could burn a hole in your pocket as they consume a considerable amount of electricity. However, there is a solution that can help you heat the water without worrying about the bills.

Yes, I am talking about solar water systems as they offer sustainable hot water supply for homes. Talking about their capability, they can heat the water up to 80 degrees Celsius. The most amazing part about the same is that the same can be done at zero or no cost of electricity. Not only for domestic purposes, the solar water heating system is also appropriate for commercial sectors like hotels, hospitals, and restaurants. Here in this piece, we will talk about the different solar water heating systems, their working, and their types.

Types of solar water heating systems

Starting with types of solar water heating systems can be categorized into two categories, active and passive. As for Passive SWH systems are completely independent of electricity, and natural phenomena like sunlight and gravity carry out their functioning. Contradictorily, the Active solar water heating systems need additional components like a pump that relies on electricity to kick start the complete system. Both systems work in completely different ways, which we will explain further in the article.

How does Passive Solar Water Heating System work?

The Passive Solar Water Heating system is based on the principle of the greenhouse heating effect. In simple terms, the working of a passive SWH system focuses more on trapping the liquid in a suitable container and leaving it to increase exposure to sunlight. A set of black-coloured heat-absorbing plates is used to gather as much solar energy as possible. The water gets heated in the tank without the requirement of any pump. With the basic use of gravity, the hot water gets transferred from the top of the home to the lower building floors.

Another major highlight of the Passive SWH systems is that they are cheaper to set up as they don’t consist of any electrical components. Passive solar water heating systems are best for regions where the climate is warm. Moreover, they also require low maintenance due to the easy and cost-efficient setup.

How does the Active Solar Water Heater System work?

The Active Solar Water Heater works on electrical components like a circulation pump, hot water storage, and heat collectors. The solar radiation falling on the plates gets absorbed, and the controllers and sensors activate the pump. Now, the water pump brings the cold water from a storage tank and circulates it via the collectors. This also helps in heating the water through the heat exchanger. This is called the direct circulation system, which is the most commonly used one.

Another system on which the Active SWH works is the Indirect Circulation System, which is apt for places where the temperature is around freezing. The anti-freezing liquid used in these heaters collects heat from the collectors instead of water. The liquid is transferred from the liquid to water in the storage tank. The Direct Active SWH systems can be used for hard and acidic water, and the indirect SWH systems are sensitive to these water types.

Nishit Raghuwanshi RudraNishit Raghuwanshi Rudra
A career journalist who spent three plus years playing around with smartphones, associated apps and more. As a hobby, Rudra enjoys researching mobile games. When he's not busy in the world of gadgets, he is busy with a paper and pen writing poems or engaging with his growing digital audience on the Hindi rap circuit.

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